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ClodronateLiposomes.org

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Welcome


Please note: The website is written in English. 

Turkey

It seems that Erdogan and his team in Turkey do not see that (re)introduction of capital punishment can never be retroactively. Also they do not seem to see that worldwide, many people condemned to capital punishment do not deserve this, whereas many people that would deserve it, will not be condemned to it. But once executed it cannot be retracted. For that reason it should never be put into practice in Europe.


Columns are written in Dutch: Last column: June 19, 2016.  Menselijke en meeuwelijke waardigheid

Also an e-book has been written in Dutch as follows:
Xenos: Bioloog tussen mannen, muizen en motoren (Dutch Edition) 
(To be translated as: Xenos: Biologist between men,
mice and motorcycles)

by Nico van Rooijen 
GO TO:  <www.amazon.nl> and search for 
  • ASIN: B01BPN5SXO

 
  • Please note: A new website <www.clodronateliposomes.com> is available for ordering of clodronate liposomes and control liposomes containing no clodronate. Please click on ORDER LIPOSOMES in the above MENU of the present site, to go directly to the order page of the new site. 
  • The new website will also show you a list of current projects brought up to date. The present website will show the list of publications brought up to date. 
  • Under references/publications, you will now find a short review on applicabilities.
  • BEFORE SUBMITTING QUESTIONS, PLEASE SEARCH THE SECTIONS: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions under INFORMATION), READ THE REVIEW UNDER PUBLICATIONS/REFERENCES & SEARCH THE LISTED REFERENCES IN THAT SECTION.

cartoon of a liposome and a macrophage

Liposomes as a tool to manipulate macrophage function

From an evolutionary point of view, macrophages are ancient cells. They form the core of the natural immune system and did appear long before the cells forming together the complex immune system of the higher vertebrates. As a consequence, during the evolution, they did acquire functions both in natural immune reactions and in the regulation of functions of many non-phagocytic cells. The latter functions are mainly mediated by soluble molecules such as cytokines and chemokines.

Macrophages are also involved in 'homoiostasis' of the body by ingesting and digesting microorganisms or non-self particles and macromolecules. Digestion is in turn mediated by their lysosomal enzymes.

Liposomes are artificially prepared lipid vesicles, consisting of concentric phospholipid bilayers entrapping aqueous compartments. They can be used to encapsulate strongly hydropihilic molecules solved in aqueous solutions, such as clodronate, a non-toxic bisphosphonate, developed for human application. Freely solved clodronate will not cross liposomal or cellular phospholipid membranes. After injection, liposomes, used as Trojan horses in this case, will be ingested and digested by macrophages followed by intracellular release and accumulation of clodronate. At a certain intracellular concentration, clodronate induces apoptosis of the macrophage. By this approach, i.e. by creating an animal with macrophage depleted tissues or organs, functional aspects of macrophages are studied 'in vivo' in many collaborative projects.

Moreover, promising results were obtained by application of clodronate liposomes for suppression of macrophage activity in various models of autoimmune diseases, transplantation, neurological disorders and gene therapy.

 

 
Copyright (C) 2006 Dr. Nico van Rooijen - All rights reserved.